Psychobiology

  • Penulis: Chris Chandler, Chris Chandler, Chris Chandler, Chris Chandler,
  • E-ISBN: 9781119068976
  • Penerbit: Wiley
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Deskripsi

Psychobiology provides a comprehensive, yet accessible introduction to the study of psychobiology and the key concepts, topics and research that are core to understanding the brain and the biological basis of our behaviour. Assuming no prior knowledge of biology, the text emphasises the interaction of psychobiology with other core areas of psychology and disciplines. Through the use of exciting and engaging examples, the role of psychobiology in the real world is explored and emphasisised to allow students to connect theory to practice in this fascinating subject.

Preface xix

PART I IN THE BEGINNING 1

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Psychobiology 3

Introduction 4

What is Psychobiology? 4

Reductionism 4

History of Neuroscience 6

Psychobiology: Essential Collaboration 9

Points of View in Psychobiology 9

Physiological Psychology 9

Psychophysiology 9

Psychopharmacology 10

Neuropsychology 10

Cognitive Neuroscience 10

Social/Affective Neuroscience 10

Comparative Psychology 10

Behavioural Genetics 11

Computational Neuroscience 11

Ethics: Bioethics and Neuroethics 12

Animal Research 13

Experiments in the USA 14

Beyond the USA and UK 15

Professional Bodies: British Psychological Society (BPS) and American Psychological Association (APA) 15

Beyond the Ethics of Animal Research: The Validity of Animal Models of Behaviour 16

Good Science Versus Junk In – Junk Out 20

Summary 20

CHAPTER 2 Genetics and Evolution 23

Introduction 24

In The Beginning – Evolution 24

Darwin’s Revolutionary Theory – The Theory of Evolution 25

Evidence: The Case in Support of the Theory of Evolution 25

The Organism and the Environment 26

The Evolution of Humans 27

Evolutionary Psychology 29

From Evolution to Genetics 29

Mendelian Genetics 35

Mendelian Genetics and Eye Colour 36

Mendelian Inheritance: Huntington’s Disease – Dominant Allele in Action 37

Mendelian Inheritance: PKU – A Recessive Allele in Action 39

Chromosomes and Inheritance 39

DNA 42

What is DNA? 43

What is the Function of DNA? 44

Genetic Variation 47

Variable Number Tandem Repeats 47

Epigenetics 50

Behavioural Genetics: The Complex Interplay of Psychology and Genetics 50

DNA and Psychology 55

Beyond Mendelian Inheritance: The Endophenotype 56

Molecular Biotechnology and Psychology 56

The Human Genome Project 57

Summary 59

CHAPTER 3 Neural Development 61

Introduction 62

General Development 62

Neural Development over the Lifespan 62

Neural Development 64

Developmental Changes in the Brain 64

Development of The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 71

Development of The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) 71

Male and Female Brains 71

Adolescent Development 71

Adult Development 75

Critical Periods 76

Teratology 78

Summary 80

CHAPTER 4 The Neuron, The Endocrine System and Communication 83

Introduction 84

Neurons 84

Inside the Cell: Atoms at the Heart of Life 84

Neurons: Structure and Function 84

Support Cells 89

Glial Cells 89

Types of Neurons 90

Signalling and Communication Within the Neuron 90

Electrical Communication 90

Signalling and Communication between Neurons: Synaptic Transmission 99

Neurotransmitters 101

Receptors 102

Synaptic and Cellular Regulation 104

Retrograde Signalling 107

Signalling and Communication between Neurons: Gap Junctions 108

Endocrinology: Studying Long-Distance Communication 109

Action of Hormones at Their Target 113

Regulation 114

Summary 114

CHAPTER 5 Neuroanatomy and The Nervous System 117

Introduction 118

The Nervous Systems 118

The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 118

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) 120

The Central Nervous System (CNS) 126

Neuroanatomy 130

White and Grey Matter 131

Spatial Relationships of the Brain and Spinal Cord 132

Brain Regions 132

Forebrain: Telencephalon and Diencephalon 132

The Limbic System (and Hippocampus) 141

The Basal Ganglia 143

Midbrain: Mesencephalon 143

Hindbrain: Metencephalon and Myelencephalon 143

The Ins and Outs of Blood Supply to the Brain 145

Arterial Supply of Oxygenated Blood 147

The Cerebral Arterial Circle: The Circle of Willis 149

Sinuses 149

Endocrine System 150

The Pituitary Gland 150

Summary 150

CHAPTER 6 Psychobiology and Neuroscience Methods 153

Introduction 154

Physiological Psychology 154

Neuropsycho-Pharmacology 157

Unilateral and Bilateral Lesions 158

Psychophysiology 158

The Electroencephalogram 158

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) 158

Event-related Potentials 159

Beyond the Brain 160

Brain Imaging 161

Nuclear Imaging Using Radioactivity and Radioactive Isotopes 161

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 164

Optical Imaging of the Brain 166

Neuroimaging is not the Ultimate Evidence 166

Neuroimaging Maps of the Mind 168

Psychophysiology and Neuroimaging Combined 168

Virtual Lesions – Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation 169

Summary 169

CHAPTER 7 Psychopharmacology 173

Introduction 174

Drug Classification 174

Drug Action 177

Pharmacokinetics 177

Pharmacodynamics 185

Types of Drugs 193

Stimulants 194

Depressants 194

Mind-Altering Drugs 196

Antidepressants 197

Antipsychotics 197

Psychopharmacology – The Dark Side 197

Clinical Trials 199

Summary 201

CHAPTER 8 Animal Learning 203

Introduction 204

Learning Theory: Adaptations and Associations 205

Habituation 205

Reflexes 207

Classical Conditioning 208

Measuring the Conditioned Response 209

Acquisition 209

Extinction 209

Spontaneous Recovery 209

Stimulus Generalization and Stimulus Discrimination 210

Is the Conditioned Response Identical to the Unconditioned Response? 210

The Relationship between the Conditioned Stimulus and the Unconditioned Stimulus 211

Delay Conditioning 212

Simultaneous Conditioning 212

Backward Conditioning 213

Trace Conditioning 214

Temporal Conditioning 214

Latent Inhibition 215

Blocking 215

The Rescorla–Wagner Model 215

Applications of Classical Conditioning: From Bench to Bedside 215

Operant Conditioning 216

The Law of Effect 217

Behaviourism 217

Acquisition 221

Shaping and Conditioning by Successive Approximations 221

Extinction 221

Spontaneous Recovery 221

Discrimination and Generalization 221

Interoceptive and Exteroceptive Stimuli 221

Applications of Operant Conditioning: From Bench to Bedside 224

Cognition in Animals 224

Summary 225

CHAPTER 9 Drugs and Behaviour: Behaviour and Drugs 227

Introduction 228

Schedules as Fundamental Determinants of Drug-Elicited Behaviour 228

Tolerance 230

Sensitization 233

The Placebo 233

Conscious Processes 238

Unconscious Processes 241

Summary 243

PART II PSYCHOBIOLOGY: BRINGING BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR TOGETHER 249

CHAPTER 10 Perceptual Systems 251

Introduction 252

The Sensory Modalities 252

Vision and Visual Perception 252

The Eye 253

The Sclera and Cornea 253

Aqueous Humour 255

The Iris and Pupil 255

The Lens 255

Vitreous Humour 255

The Retina 255

The Optic Nerve 261

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus 261

The Visual Cortex 263

Colour Perception 266

Binocular Vision: Two Eyes and Two Hemispheres 270

A Summary of Visual Perception 271

Hearing and Auditory Perception 272

The Ear 273

The Auditory Nerve and Cortex 274

Smelling and Olfactory Perception 275

The Nasal Membrane 275

Tasting and the Gustatory System 276

The Tongue and Mouth 276

The Vestibular System 277

Feeling and Somatosensation 279

The Skin 279

The Transmission of Tactile Stimuli to the Brain 279

Nociception and the Perception of Pain 279

Why Pain? 281

Components of Pain 281

Receptors 281

Pain Fibres 281

Pathways 282

Descending Pathways 284

Endogenous Analgesia 286

Pain Control 286

Masochism 290

The Hard Question 291

Sensory Integration 291

Summary 291

CHAPTER 11 Motor Behaviour and Control 293

Introduction 294

Regions of the Brain 294

The Motor Cortex 294

The Premotor Cortex 295

Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) 297

Presupplementary Motor Area (Pre-SMA) 297

Cingulate Motor Area 297

Broca’s Area 297

Frontal Eye Fields 297

The Basal Ganglia 298

The Cerebellum 301

Brainstem 302

Descending Pathways 302

The Pyramidal System 305

The Extrapyramidal System 305

Passage of Information to Muscles 305

The Skeleton 306

The Muscles 306

Neurochemical Activation of the Muscles 307

Feedback 309

Control and Agency 309

Summary 309

CHAPTER 12 Executive Functions 315

Introduction 316

Frontal Lobe Evolution and the Cerebral Localization of Humanity 316

Lesions And Imaging 317

The Frontal Lobes: Damage and the Dysexecutive Syndrome 322

Thinking 322

Rule Learning, Planning and Problem Solving 323

Error Utilization 327

Attention 327

Theories Describing Frontal Lobe Function 328

Theory of Mind: Mind Reading (or Knowing Me, Knowing You (Aha)) 328

Just Say No – The Case of Free Won’t 329

Summary 339

CHAPTER 13 Neural Plasticity and Memory 343

Introduction 344

Memory: What is it and Where is it? 344

Amnesia 345

The Neural Basis of Memory 353

The Neural Bases of Learning: Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)

and Long-Term Depression (LTD) 353

What Happens at the Neural Level? 353

Neuroplasticity 355

Summary 356

CHAPTER 14 Sex 359

Introduction 360

Evolution of Sex and the Sexes 360

Differentiation of the Sexes 361

Female Genitalia 361

Male Genitalia 365

Sex Hormones 368

Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation 369

Sexual Development 373

The Male and Female Brain 373

What Regions of the Brain are Different in the Sexes? 377

What Happens During Sexual Arousal? 380

Evolution of Pleasure 386

Sexual orientation 386

Summary 388

CHAPTER 15 The Neural Regulation of Homeostasis: Feeding and Drinking 391

Introduction 392

Feeding Behaviour 392

Brain Mechanisms for Eating 397

Eating Disorders 401

Psychological Factors which Influence Eating 405

Drinking and Thirst 406

Brain Mechanisms in Thirst 406

Summary 406

CHAPTER 16 Motivation 409

Introduction 410

Drug Addiction: The Triumph of Motivation Over Reason 410

What is Addiction? 412

A Reward Pathway: A Common Denominator in Addiction and Motivation 413

Intracranial self-stimulation 413

Drug self-administration 416

Amphetamine, Cocaine and Nicotine 416

Natural Reinforcers 419

Theories of Addiction – Theories of Motivation 419

Positive reinforcement 421

Sensitization 421

Physical dependence theories and negative reinforcement 423

Just say no 427

Motivation, addiction and learning 429

Which Theory is Correct? 430

Summary 431

CHAPTER 17 Emotion 435

Introduction 436

What is Emotion? 436

Facial Expression 438

Physiological/Psychological Theories of Emotion 443

James–Lange Theory of Emotion 443

Cannon–Bard Theory of Emotion 443

Schachter’s Cognitive Labelling Theory of Emotion 446

The Emotional Brain 447

Papez Circuit 447

The Temporal Lobe and Limbic System in Emotion 447

The Amygdala 448

The Hippocampus and Fear 450

Fear or Fear Conditioning 450

Beyond Fear 452

Conceptual Act Model of Emotion 452

Rolls’ Reinforcement Model of Emotion 454

The Somatic Marker Hypothesis of Emotion 456

Emotion: What’s Love Got To Do With It? 456

Love is the Drug 457

Aggression and Violence 458

Neural Mechanisms and Aggression 458

Hormones and Aggression 459

Stress 459

Emotion and Music: Beyond Emotion as an Evolutionary Adaptation (Or Not) 459

Summary 461

CHAPTER 18 Sleep and Consciousness 463

Introduction 464

Circadian Rhythms 464

Sleep 465

Sleep Architecture 465

The Stages of Sleep 465

The Neural Mechanisms of Sleep 468

Neurotransmitters and Sleep 468

Dreams 469

Theories of Sleep 470

Why Do We Need to Sleep? 470

Sleep Disorders and Mental Health 470

Consciousness 472

Who are We and What Do We feel? What is It to Think? 472

Free Will 474

Summary 481

CHAPTER 19 Lateralization and Language 483

Introduction 484

Lateralization: Neuroanatomy 484

Functional Lateralization 486

Asymmetry and Sex 489

Is Functional Lateralization Fixed? 490

Split Brains 490

Summary 496

PART III THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY 499

CHAPTER 20 Developmental Disorders 503

Introduction 504

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 504

Diagnostic Criteria 504

Structural Changes in the Brain 506

Functional Neuroimaging of ADHD 506

Psychophysiological Studies 506

Frontostriatal Circuits 507

Pharmacology and Efficacy of Psychostimulants used in treating ADHD 507

Psychopharmacology: From Treatment to Theory 509

Barkley’s Neuropsychological Account – Behavioural Inhibition 511

Working Memory 513

Autism Spectrum Disorder 515

Diagnostic Criteria 515

The Genetics of ASD 515

Structural Neuroimaging in the Brain 518

Functional Neuroimaging of ASD 518

Neurochemistry and Psychopharmacology of ASD 519

Theories of ASD 519

Summary 520

CHAPTER 21 Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders 523

Introduction 524

Genetics of Schizophrenia 525

Neurochemistry of Schizophrenia 529

Typical and Atypical Antipsychotics 532

Neurobiological Theories 534

Neuropsychological Theories 535

Limitations of Many Studies in Schizophrenia 537

Summary 537

CHAPTER 22 Affective Disorders 541

Introduction 542

What causes depression? 545

Genetics of Depression 545

Neurochemistry of Depression 548

Noradrenergic Hypothesis of Depression 548

Serotonin Hypothesis of Depression 550

Treatments for Depression 552

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors 552

Atypical Antidepressants 552

Selective Noradrenergic Reuptake Inhibitors 552

Dual Action Antidepressants 552

Electroconvulsive Therapy 553

Lithium 553

Neuroanatomy of Depression 553

Is there a Common Denominator in all the Treatments for Depression? 554

Summary 556

CHAPTER 23 Stress and Anxiety 559

Introduction 560

Stress 560

What is Stress? 561

The Stress Response 563

Input of the Stress Response 564

Sympathetic-adrenomedullary axis (SAM) 565

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis 566

Homeostasis Versus Allostasis (Acute Versus Chronic Stress) 569

Anxiety 571

Neurobiology 576

GABA and Anxiety 576

Barbiturates 576

Benzodiazepines 578

Noradrenaline 580

Serotonin 580

A Neuropsychological Theory of Anxiety 581

Summary 582

CHAPTER 24 Neurodegeneration 583

Introduction 584

Subcortical Neurodegeneration: Parkinson’s Disease 584

Neuropathology 586

Neuropharmacology 586

Neuropsychology 589

Cortical Neurodegeneration: Alzheimer’s Disease 593

Neuropathology 594

Neuropharmacology 596

Neuropsychology 598

Summary 600

CHAPTER 25 Psychobiology: Implications for the Brave New World 603

Introduction 604

Policy 604

Diagnosis 606

Treatment 606

Education 607

Law 608

Summary 610

Glossary 613

Index 635


Chris Chandler is currently a Principal Lecturer in biological psychology at London Metropolitan University. He has taught the biological aspects of psychology at all undergraduate levels and to an extremely diverse range of students, giving him ample experience of how to effectively convey complex information to a wide audience. His research background is in dopamine and addiction, as well as an interest in ADHD.

Key Features Include:

  • Full coverage of all major theories and topics.
  • Engaging discussion of the major research topics and implications of their findings.
  • Key concepts and research are explored in detailin feature boxes throughout the text.
  • Clear summaries, further reading and learning objectives allow students to track their progression throughout the course.
  • Extensive full-colour illustrations to stimulate interest and understanding.

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